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|Título:||Food Sources and Chemistry of Plant Sterols and Stanols|
|Citação:||Guiné RPF (2015) Food Sources and Chemistry of Plant Sterols and Stanols. in Garner D (Ed.) Phytosterols. Food Sources, Functions and Health Benefits. Chapter 2, pp. 23-41, Nova Publishers, USA|
|Resumo:||A wide range of plants have phytosterols in their composition, both strerols and stanols, being however the stanols present in considerably smaller quantities when compared to sterols. Among the most abundant plant sterols are sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. As to plant stanols, they are present in the diet in small amounts, being one of the most important the sitostanol. Some food sources that are rich in phytosterols include for example: fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, cereals, legumes and vegetable oils. It is therefore important to know what are the food sources of these bioactive compounds and what amounts are present. This is one of the goals of the present chapter, which aims to revise the most recent scientific literature to look for updates regarding the food sources of phytosterols, as a complement to the information more generally available. Both stanols and sterols are essential components of plant cell membranes and structurally resemble cholesterol. In fact, cholesterol is also a sterol, but, unlike plant sterols, it is predominantly of animal origin, being synthesized in the human liver. Because the bioactive effects of phytosterols are much associated to their chemical structure, also this aspect is addressed in the present chapter, by presenting the chemistry of the different molecules of the phytosterols.|
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