Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.19/4466
Título: Characterization and Quantification of Proanthocyanidins in Grapes and Wines: A Review
Autor: Jordão, António M.
Cosme, Fernanda
Palavras-chave: composition
grapes
proanthocyanidins
structural characteristics
wines
Data: 19-Jan-2017
Editora: Nova Science Publishers
Citação: Jordão, A.M. & Cosme, F. (2017). Characterization and quantification of proanthocyanidins in grapes and wines: A review, In: Taylor, J. C. (Ed.) "Advances in Chemistry Research", 36 (pp. 1-40). New York: Nova Science.
Resumo: Grapes have long been appreciated for their rich content of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, (+)-catechin, anthocyanins and resveratrol, and a wide diversity of proanthocyanidins (PAs). In the grape berries, the flavan-3-ols ((+)-catechins and PAs) are present in the solid parts of grapes (stems, skins and particularly seeds) and exist with different degrees of polymerization (dimers, trimmers, tetramers and polymers). Several factors could determine the grape PA content, namely, grape variety, viticulture practices and environment conditions. On the other hand, during winemaking process, the extraction rate from grape to must during maceration and alcoholic fermentation, depends on several factors, such as concentration of PAs in grape, alcohol content, sulphur dioxide content, maceration time and temperature. Also, several winemaking techniques could enhance their extraction, such as, cold soak, must freezing with dry ice and treatments using pectolytic enzymes. However, the application of protein fining agents, mannoproteins or oenological tannins could also have an important impact on the wine PAs concentration and composition. Thus, the main purpose of this chapter is to show a review about the structural characteristics and composition of PAs in grapes and wines, including the main factors that could determine PAs concentration.
Peer review: yes
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.19/4466
ISBN: 978-1-53610-764-7
Versão do Editor: https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=60754&osCsid=c7e30ff61a1eb42eb3317a2532206f59
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